Coffee's Story, Dive into Coffee's Year-by-Year History

Imagine, centuries ago, a simple goatherd in Ethiopia stumbled upon a miracle bean that would change the world. This unassuming discovery, coffee, ignited a journey that would span continents, fuel revolutions, and become the most popular drink on Earth.

Our story begins in the 700s, nestled in the Ethiopian mountains. Follow the bean’s trail as it weaves through the Arabian Peninsula, captivating pilgrims and igniting a love affair with Muslims worldwide. Watch it spread like wildfire – first to Asia, then to Europe, each region adding its own unique twist to the brewing ritual.

But the adventure doesn’t stop there. We’ll navigate the turbulent waters of American history, where coffee became a symbol of rebellion against tea-loving oppressors. Witness how a simple beverage became a badge of national pride, fueling the American spirit with every sip.

This is more than just a history – it’s an adventure! Join us as we delve into the year-by-year events that shaped coffee into the global phenomenon it is today. From groundbreaking discoveries to pivotal moments, we’ll unravel the fascinating story of how one bean conquered the world.

The Early Years Of Coffee


Discovery of coffee as a beverage

Although coffee beans have long been known in the highlands of Ethiopia, they were not used as a beverage. Muslims, who first migrated to Ethiopia in the 700s, first roasted coffee beans and then boiled them to turn them into a drink.



The introduction of coffee into written texts

Abu Bakr al-Razi mentioned coffee beans and the drink obtained from them in his books. All-Razi (864-925) was a Muslim physician, philosopher, and alchemist. Al-Razi described coffee as a stimulant that could help to improve digestion and relieve headaches. He used the expressions “hot, hard, and good for the stomach” for coffee.

In his writings, al-Razi used the original Ethiopian names for coffee. He used the term “bunn” for coffee beans and “buncham” for the drink obtained from them.

The terms “bunn” and “buncham” are still used in some Ethiopian languages to refer to coffee beans and coffee, respectively.



Ibn Sina studied the health effects of coffee

Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in Europe and America, wrote about the health effects of coffee beans and the drink in his books.

Ibn Sina’s writings on coffee are some of the earliest known references to the drink’s medicinal properties. Like al-Razi, Ibn Sina described coffee as a stimulant that could help to improve digestion, relieve headaches, and treat other ailments.



The First Step to Today’s Coffee

In the beginning, coffee was prepared by boiling whole beans. Later on, people in the Moka region of Ethiopia started grinding the beans in a mortar and pestle before boiling them.

This was a significant step in the evolution of coffee as it allowed for a more refined and flavorful beverage. The practice of grinding coffee beans before brewing spread throughout the world and is still the standard method used today.



Earthenware Coffee Cups

Coffee was first consumed in small earthenware pots. These pots gradually evolved into the cups we use today.

This was a crucial step in the development of coffee culture as it allowed for a more personal and enjoyable experience. The use of earthenware cups also helped to preserve the heat of the coffee and enhance its flavor.



Roasting Colanders and Cylinder Grinders

With the spread of coffee, specialized tools began to be developed for its preparation.

For roasting coffee: Perforated colanders were used to roast the coffee beans evenly. The holes in the colander allow hot air to circulate evenly around the coffee beans, ensuring a consistent roast.

For grinding coffee: Cylinder-shaped coffee grinders made of bronze were developed.These grinders consist of two rotating cylinders with grooves that crush the coffee beans. These coffee grinders are still in use today.

These innovations made the coffee preparation process more efficient and consistent, contributing to the growing popularity of coffee.



Roasting Colanders and Cylinder Grinders

With the spread of coffee, specialized tools began to be developed for its preparation.

For roasting coffee: Perforated colanders were used to roast the coffee beans evenly. The holes in the colander allow hot air to circulate evenly around the coffee beans, ensuring a consistent roast.

For grinding coffee: Cylinder-shaped coffee grinders made of bronze were developed.These grinders consist of two rotating cylinders with grooves that crush the coffee beans. These coffee grinders are still in use today.

These innovations made the coffee preparation process more efficient and consistent, contributing to the growing popularity of coffee.



Coffee Enters the Arabian Peninsula

Sheikh Jamaluddin, the Mufti of Aden, witnessed the benefits of coffee firsthand during his time in Ethiopia. He then initiated coffee production in Yemen, where the fertile lands of the western and southern regions became the first places to cultivate coffee. Yemen’s climate and soil proved to be ideal for coffee cultivation, and the country quickly became a major producer of coffee.

The entry of coffee into the Arabian Peninsula was a pivotal moment in the history of this beloved beverage. It opened the door to the global coffee trade and helped to make coffee a staple of everyday life for millions of people around the world.



The Introduction of Coffee to Mecca and Medina

Coffee, which was highly cherished by the people of Ethiopia and Yemen, was brought to Mecca and Medina by pilgrims on their Hajj and Umrah journeys. This gave the people of Mecca and Medina the opportunity to try coffee. The beloved beverage quickly gained popularity and became widely consumed in Mecca and Medina.

The introduction of coffee to Mecca and Medina was a pivotal moment in the history of coffee. It marked the beginning of coffee’s global journey and its transformation into a beloved beverage enjoyed by people all over the world.



The first coffee tree in Sri Lanka

Muslim pilgrims from Sri Lanka who traveled to Mecca and Medina for Hajj brought back coffee trees with them when they returned. The first coffee trees were planted in the Ceylon region, which is now famous for its tea. However, these were not grown for commercial purposes, but rather for personal consumption.



Coffee reached Cairo

The Egyptian people first met coffee thanks to Sufi dervishes who came to Cairo from Yemen. The dervishes were able to stay awake all night thanks to the caffeine in coffee and spend their nights in worship.



The First Coffeehouse

The first coffeehouse in history was opened in Mecca, near a mosque.

The First Coffee Ban

The first coffee ban was issued in Mecca by Emir Hayr Bek. Bek was concerned about the social and political implications of coffeehouses, which he saw as places where people could gather to discuss and debate political issues, and Hayr Bek feared that this could lead to unrest.He also believed that coffee was a harmful substance.

In 1511, Bek convened a council of scholars, doctors, and local officials to discuss the issue of coffee. The council ruled that coffee should be banned, and Bek issued a decree to that effect. The ban was met with widespread opposition, and it was soon lifted by the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, to whom Bek was subordinate. Bek was also dismissed from his position as Emir of Mecca.



The Encouragement of Coffee

The dismissed Emir of Mecca, Hayr Bek, was replaced by Emir Kutlubay, who was more moderate on the issue of coffee. He believed that coffee was a harmless beverage and that it could even be beneficial to health.

To promote coffee, Kutlubay held a feast for the notables of Mecca. He served them coffee and encouraged them to drink it. He also gave a speech in which he praised coffee and thanked God for this gift.

Kutlubay’s actions had a significant impact on the popularity of coffee in Mecca. Many people who had previously been hesitant to try coffee were now willing to do so. As a result, coffee consumption in Mecca increased significantly.



Coffee Came to Istanbul from Egypt

Yavuz Sultan Selim, who conquered Egypt, loved the coffee he drank there. He brought coffee with him when he returned to Istanbul. This is how the Turks first met coffee.



The Closure of Coffeehouses in Mecca

The Mufti of Mecca ordered the closure of coffeehouses due to reasons such as them being filled with unemployed and idle individuals, and frequent fights breaking out. The ban only applied to the closure of coffeehouses, and it was not forbidden to drink coffee in homes. The coffeehouse ban was later softened, and coffeehouses were allowed to reopen with written permission from the local authorities.

The reasons for this decision were:

  • Unemployment and Laziness: The Mufti was concerned that coffeehouses had become a place where idle and lazy people spent their time, and that they encouraged laziness.
  • Fights and Disorder: Fights and disturbances were frequent in coffeehouses. This situation threatened the security and peace of the city.
  • Moral Corruption: The Mufti also thought that coffeehouses posed a moral danger. It was said that gambling and inappropriate behavior took place there.

The ban on coffeehouses was only temporary. After a while, it was relaxed and coffeehouses were allowed to reopen, but only with a written permit from the local authorities. These permits were only granted to coffeehouses that met certain conditions, such as:

  • Not being located near mosques
  • Not allowing alcohol or gambling
  • Not allowing inappropriate behavior



The First Coffee in Syria

Syrians who went to Mecca and Medina for Hajj and Umrah brought back coffee to Syria after enjoying it there. Coffee quickly became popular in Syria, and coffeehouses began to spring up in major cities like Damascus and Aleppo.



Coffeehouse Rebellion in Egypt

Religious fanatics in Cairo pressured the local government to close coffeehouses, arguing that drinking coffee contrary to Islam and that coffeehouses were places of moral corruption. They also claimed that coffee was harmful to health.The Chief Qadi of Cairo, the city’s highest religious authority, consulted doctors about the health effects of coffee. The doctors concluded that coffee was not harmful to health. The Qadi also consulted with religious scholars, who concluded that drinking coffee was not contrary to Islam.

Based on the advice of the doctors and religious scholars, the Qadi of Cairo decided not to close the coffeehouses. This decision angered the religious fanatics, who continued to protest against coffeehouses.



The first coffee ban in Istanbul

Kanuni Sultan Süleyman banned coffee. However, this ban did not last very long. After a while, coffee was legalized again.

The reason for the ban is not entirely clear. Some historians believe that the ban was issued because coffee was seen as a threat to the established order. Others believe that the ban was issued because coffee was seen as a luxury item that was not affordable for the common people.

The lifting of the ban was followed by a boom in the coffee trade in Istanbul. Coffeehouses began to spring up all over the city, and coffee became a popular beverage among all classes of people.



The Coffee Ban in the Ottoman Empire

Sokullu Mehmed Pasha, the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, banned coffee and closed all coffeehouses. He believed that coffeehouses were hotbeds of political dissent and that they were a waste of time and money.

The coffee ban was met with widespread resistance. Many people in the Ottoman Empire loved coffee and were not willing to give it up. Coffeehouses continued to operate in secret, and people found ways to smuggle coffee into the city.

The coffee ban was eventually lifted in 1566, but it was reinstated several times over the next few decades. Each time, the ban was met with the same resistance, and it was eventually lifted again.



Coffee was first mentioned in Europe

Leonhardt Rauwolf, a German doctor and botanist, visited the Mediterranean countries known as the “Levant”. During his travels, he was drawn to coffee and mentioned it in his writings. He described it as a black, hot drink consumed by the people of the region.

Rauwolf’s writings are considered to be the first mention of coffee in Europe. He described the drink as being black, hot, and bitter, and he noted that it was popular among the people of the Levant. He also mentioned that coffee was believed to have medicinal properties.

Rauwolf’s travels took place in the mid-16th century, around 1550.  Rauwolf’s book, “Reisebeschreibungen in die Morgenländer” (Travelogues to the Orient), was published in 1583.



Coffee in Italy

The Italian physician and botanist Prospero Alpini first tried coffee during his visit to Egypt. He brought some coffee back to his country when he returned.

Prospero Alpini was a Venetian physician and botanist who lived from 1553 to 1617. He traveled to Egypt in 1580 and 1581, and during this time he became interested in coffee. Alpini brought coffee beans back to Italy and introduced them to his countrymen. Coffee quickly became popular in Italy, and it soon became a staple of Italian culture.



The first book about coffee

Abdulkadir al-Jaziri wrote about the properties of the coffee plant and coffee drink in his book “Umdetü’s-Safve fî Hall-il-Kahve”.

The book is considered to be the first book ever written about coffee. It describes the coffee plant, its cultivation, and the preparation and consumption of coffee. The book also discusses the medical properties of coffee and its effects on the human body.

The book was translated into English with a name of “The Essence of Purity in the Explanation of Coffee” in 1835, by Edward Lane. It is an important source of information about the early history of coffee and its introduction to the Middle East.



The first Latin publication about coffee

The Italian botanist Prospero Alpini wrote about the coffee plant and the coffee beverage in his book “De Plantis Aegypti liber”. The book was printed in Latin in Vienna. The Turkish translation of the book, “Mısır’ın Bitkileri” (Plants of Egypt), has the distinction of being the first Latin publication about coffee.

The book contains a detailed description of the coffee plant, including its cultivation, processing, and preparation. Alpini also describes the medicinal properties of coffee and its use as a beverage.

The book was an important contribution to the knowledge of coffee in Europe. It helped to dispel many of the myths and misconceptions about coffee that were prevalent at the time. The book also helped to popularize coffee in Europe, and it is credited with helping to make coffee the popular beverage that it is today.



An Attempt to Ban Coffee in the Christian World

Catholic priests in Europe become disturbed by the spread of coffee. They claim that this beverage, which originated in the Islamic world, is the devil’s drink and ask Pope Clement VIII to ban it.

The Pope, who has never tried coffee before, tastes it and says, “This devil’s drink is delicious!” He loves the taste and smell of coffee and declares that he has blessed it and that it is now a Christian drink.

This event marks a turning point in the history of coffee in Europe. Coffee, which was once seen as a dangerous and sinful beverage, is now accepted and even embraced by the Christian world.



First English publication about coffee

The book “Linschoten’s Travels” written by a Dutch traveler was translated from Flemish to English and published in London. Coffee is mentioned under the name “chaona”.

Translation of the relevant passage from the book:

“There is another drinke also very common in Turkie, called Chaona, which is made of a certaine blacke seed called Chaube, which they roast in a pan, and then beate it into a powder, and drinke it hotte, putting a little of it into a cup of water. This drinke is very blacke, and of a strong smell, and tasteth somewhat bitter, but it is very holesome, and good for the stomacke, and against the colde and fluxe.”



First Coffee Tree in India

Baba Budan, who traveled to Mecca for Hajj, loved coffee so much that he wanted to grow this plant in India. However, it was forbidden to take raw coffee beans out of the city. Therefore, on his return from the Hajj, he hid 7 coffee beans in his belt and brought them to India. Baba Budan grew the first coffee trees in the Chickmaglur, Mysore region of southern India.

The coffee beans that Baba Budan brought were from the Yemen variety of coffee. The Chickmaglur region of India is now one of the largest coffee-producing regions in the country.



Coffee first appeared in an English book

The English diplomat Anthony Sherley mentioned coffee in his book, which recounts his travels to the Iranian and Ottoman Empires. This book was published under the title “Sherley’s Travels”.

The full title of the book is “The Three Brothers: Sir Thomas Sherley, Sir Anthony Sherley, and Sir Robert Sherley, Their Travels in Persia, the Dominions of the Great Turk, and the Empire of the Mogul.”

The mention of coffee in Sherley’s book is one of the earliest references to coffee in English literature. It helped to introduce coffee to the English public and played a role in the popularization of coffee in England.



The first book about Turkish coffeehouses

The first book about Turkish coffeehouses was written by William Biddulph, a Protestant priest who served in Aleppo, Syria. In his book “The Travels of Certain Englishmen in Africa, Asia, etc.”, he described the coffeehouses he saw in the Ottoman Empire.

Biddulph’s book was published in 1609, and it is the first known European account of coffeehouses. In his book, Biddulph describes coffeehouses as places where people could gather to drink coffee, smoke tobacco, and play games. He also notes that coffeehouses were often used as places for political and religious discussions.

Biddulph’s book was an important contribution to the understanding of coffeehouses in the Ottoman Empire. It helped to spread awareness of coffeehouses and their role in Ottoman society.



Turkish coffee is starting to make its name known in the world

English traveler Sir George Sandys traveled to Anatolia, Egypt and Palestine. In his travel notes, he mentions a dark-colored hot drink drunk in small Chinese-made cups in these regions. He wrote that this drink, called “Coffa”, was drunk very hot.



The Arrival of Coffee Seedlings in Europe

Dutchman Pieter Van den Broecke was the first to bring a live coffee seedling out of the coffee’s homeland, from the port of Mocha in Yemen. After a difficult and long journey, the coffee seedling brought to Holland was cultivated in a greenhouse environment.

Van den Broecke brought the coffee seedling from Mocha, Yemen to Holland via the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. This event marked the beginning of coffee cultivation in Europe. The coffee seedling brought by Van den Broecke was successfully cultivated in a greenhouse in Amsterdam. This led to the establishment of coffee plantations in other parts of Europe, such as Java and Suriname.

The First Sale of Coffee from Yemen to Holland

Pieter van den Broecke became the first person to bring coffee to Holland. He purchased 126 pounds of coffee beans from the Yemeni port of Mocha and transported them to Amsterdam.

The coffee was a huge success in Holland. It quickly became a popular beverage among the Dutch people, and coffeehouses began to spring up all over the country.

The sale of coffee from Yemen to Holland was a significant event in the history of coffee. It marked the beginning of the global coffee trade and helped to make coffee a popular beverage around the world.



Turkish coffee enters the book

English adventurer and founder of the Virginia colony, Captain John Smith mentions Turkish coffee under the name “coffa” in his book “Travels and Adventure”.

The book contains a description of Turkish coffee, which Smith calls “coffa”. He describes it as a “blacke drink” that is “very hot, and made of a small berry, like a pease.”

The book, published in 1630, recounts Smith’s experiences in the Ottoman Empire, including his time in Constantinople (Istanbul). In one passage, Smith describes the coffeehouses he visited in the city, and the coffee he drank there.

He writes:

“The Turkes drinke a coffe made of a small berry called Cophou, which they roast in a little yron skillet, and then grinde it to powder, and put it in a porcellan vessell, with water, as hot as they can drinke it, and then sucke it vp through a little pipe.”

Smith’s description of Turkish coffee is one of the earliest accounts of the beverage in English. It is also significant because it helps to document the spread of coffee from the Ottoman Empire to the rest of the world.



Coffeehouses were closed and coffee was banned in Istanbul

In late 1633, Sultan Murad IV ordered the closure of all coffeehouses and banned the consumption of coffee.

Naima, a historian of the period, writes that the closure of coffeehouses by Sultan Murad IV was caused by the great fire of Istanbul in 1633.

On the 27th Friday of the month of Sefer of that year, a fire broke out in a caulker’s shop outside the Cibali Gate. The fire quickly spread to the boatyards and then to the houses inside the Castle Hill, due to strong winds. The fire was a great disaster for Istanbul and could not be extinguished for days.

In addition, coffeehouses had become meeting places for rebels at that time, posing a serious threat to the government. In particular, the tragic end of Sultan Osman II forced the sultan to take serious measures, and he ordered the closure of the coffeehouses that had become centers of rebellion.

The fire of 1633 was one of the most destructive fires in Istanbul’s history. It destroyed over 30,000 houses and left tens of thousands of people homeless.

The ban initially faced strong resistance from the public, who had grown accustomed to drinking coffee. People found ways to circumvent the ban by consuming coffee in private homes and gardens. Coffee sellers also devised creative methods to continue selling coffee, such as hiding it in other containers or selling it under different names.

The ban also had a significant impact on the development of coffee culture in Europe. When coffee was banned in Istanbul, many coffeehouses moved to Europe, where they became popular meeting places for intellectuals and artists.

The ban was eventually lifted in 1656, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed IV. However, the government continued to regulate the consumption of coffee. For example, coffeehouses were required to close at night and coffee could not be sold to minors.



The First Coffeehouse in Venice

The first coffeehouse in Venice opened in 1645. It was called “Bottega del Caffè” and was located on the Piazza San Marco.

The coffeehouse was an instant success. The coffeehouse quickly became a popular meeting place for people from all walks of life. Merchants, scholars, artists, and politicians all gathered at the coffeehouse to discuss the news, debate ideas, and socialize.

The coffeehouse also became a center of intellectual activity. Many of the leading thinkers of the day, including Galileo Galilei and Giordano Bruno, were frequent visitors to the coffeehouse.

The coffeehouse had a significant impact on Venetian culture. It helped to introduce new ideas to the city and it provided a forum for people to discuss them. The coffeehouse also played a role in the development of the Venetian Enlightenment.



The First Coffee in England

The introduction of coffee to England is credited to a young Greek named Nathaniel Canopius. In 1650, Canopius traveled to Oxford to study at the University of Oxford. He brought with him a supply of coffee, which he shared with his friends and fellow students.Coffee was a new and exotic beverage at the time, and it quickly became popular among the Oxford students.

Nathaniel Canopius was born in Crete, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire. He was a Greek Orthodox Christian. Canopius studied at the University of Oxford from 1650 to 1654.

The First Coffeehouse in England

The first coffeehouse in England was opened in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob. It was named as the Angel Inn, located where The Grand Cafe stands today.

grand cafe

Jacob was a servant to a Levant Company merchant named Daniel Edwards. Edwards had brought coffee back to England from his travels in the Middle East, and he encouraged Jacob to open a coffeehouse in Oxford.

The coffeehouse was a success, and soon other coffeehouses began to open in London and other English cities. Coffeehouses became popular meeting places for men of all social classes, and they played an important role in the development of English culture.



The Oxford Coffee Club

The Oxford Coffee Club was a coffeehouse located in Oxford, England. It was founded in 1650 by a group of Oxford University students and scholars.

The club quickly became a popular meeting place for the city’s intellectual elite. Members of the club included the famous scientist Robert Boyle, the philosopher John Locke, and the poet John Dryden.

The club members met to discuss a wide range of topics, including science, philosophy, and politics. They also conducted experiments and shared their research findings.

The Oxford Coffee Club played a significant role in the development of the Royal Society, which was founded in 1660. Many of the club’s members were also members of the Royal Society, and the two organizations shared many of the same goals.



The First Newspaper Advertisement for Coffee

first ads

The first newspaper advertisement for coffee appeared in the Publick Adviser of London on September 28, 1657. The Publick Adviser of London was a weekly newspaper that was published from 1657 to 1660.

The advertisement read:


By vertue of a Patent granted by his Highnesse the Lord Protector, there is lately erected a Coffee-house, neere the Royal Exchange, in Sweeting’s-lane, by one Pasqua Rosee, where is to be sold by the said Pasqua Rosee, and his servant, both hot and cold, the right Coffee, made of the best Berry, and also powdered Coffee ready for use.

The advertisement was placed by Pasqua Rosee, a Greek immigrant who had opened the first coffeehouse in London a few months earlier. Rosee’s advertisement was successful, and coffeehouses soon became popular throughout England.

The First Coffee in France

The French journalist and traveler Jean de la Roque returned to France from a trip to Istanbul with coffee beans and coffee making equipment. He introduced coffee to the French people for the first time.

La Roque was a member of the French embassy to the Ottoman Empire. He spent several years in Istanbul, where he became a fan of coffee. He was impressed by the kahvehanes, or coffeehouses, that he saw in Istanbul. These coffeehouses were places where people could gather to socialize, drink coffee, and smoke tobacco.

When La Roque returned to France, he brought coffee beans and coffee making equipment with him. He began to serve coffee in his home, and he soon became known as the “coffee man.” He also began to write about coffee, and he published a book called “The Coffee House” in 1671.

La Roque’s efforts to introduce coffee to France were not immediately successful. Many people found the taste of coffee to be too strong and bitter. However, La Roque continued to promote coffee, and he eventually succeeded in making it a popular beverage in France.



The First Coffee Production in Sri Lanka

The Dutch introduced coffee to Sri Lanka (then known as Ceylon). They brought coffee plants from Java and began cultivating them in the island’s central highlands.



Banning the sale of coffee to women in Germany

Hamburg, a city in Germany, banned the sale of coffee to women.

The reason for the ban is not entirely clear, but there are a few possible explanations:

  • Health Concerns: Some people at the time believed that coffee was unhealthy for women, particularly pregnant women.
  • Social Concerns: Coffee houses were often seen as places of social gatherings and gossip, and some men may have been concerned about women’s behavior in these settings.
  • Control of Women: The ban may have also been a way for men to control women’s behavior and limit their social interactions.



The First Commercial Import of Coffee to France

The first commercial import of coffee to France occurred in 1664. The coffee was shipped from Egypt to Marseille by a French merchant named Pierre de la Roque.

La Roque was a member of the French Levant Company, which had a monopoly on trade between France and the Ottoman Empire. He had learned about coffee while living in the Ottoman Empire and was convinced that it would be a popular beverage in France.

La Roque’s shipment of coffee was a success. The coffee was quickly sold out and La Roque soon began importing coffee on a regular basis.



The first coffeehouse in America: The King’s Arms

The King’s Arms was the first coffeehouse in New York City. It was opened in 1696 by a man named John Hutchins. The coffeehouse was located on Pearl Street, near what is now Wall Street.

The King’s Arms was a popular meeting place for merchants, politicians, and other members of the community. It was also a place where people could come to read the news, discuss current events, and play games.

The coffeehouse was a two-story building with a large sign that read “The King’s Arms” in gold letters. The first floor was the main gathering place, where people could order coffee, tea, chocolate, and other beverages. The second floor was a private room that could be rented for meetings or parties.

The King’s Arms was a popular meeting place for members of the New York Merchants’ Exchange. It was also a place where people could come to read the news, discuss current events, and play games. The coffeehouse was a popular spot for chess and backgammon players.

The King’s Arms was closed in 1776 due to the American Revolution.

The King’s Arms was a popular meeting place for members of the Sons of Liberty. The coffeehouse was also a place where people could come to hear speeches and debates about the American Revolution. The King’s Arms was closed in 1776 because the British government feared that it was a hotbed of revolutionary activity.



Coffee in Paris

Coffee was first introduced to Paris in 1669 by Süleyman Ağa, the Ottoman ambassador to France. Ağa brought coffee with him from the Ottoman Empire and served it to guests at his residence.

The coffee was a hit with the Parisian elite, and Ağa’s residence soon became a popular meeting place for those who wanted to try the new beverage.



First Coffeehouse in France

The first coffeehouse in Paris was opened in 1672 by a man named Pascal. Pascal was an Armenian who had come to Paris from Istanbul. He opened his coffeehouse in the Saint-Germain district, which was at the time a popular gathering place for artists and intellectuals.



The First Latin Book Dedicated to Coffee

In 1672, a book titled “Discurso sobre a salvberrima bebida chamada cahve, ov cafe” (Discourse on the Very Healthy Drink Called Coffee, or Cafe) was published in Rome. The book was written in Latin by Antonius Faustus Nairon, a Maronite monk and professor of theology at the Sorbonne University.

Nairon’s book was the first to be dedicated solely to coffee. It was a comprehensive treatise on the history, cultivation, preparation, and medicinal properties of coffee. The book also included a discussion of the social and cultural significance of coffee.

Nairon’s book was well-received by the European intellectual community. It helped to dispel many of the negative myths and misconceptions that existed about coffee at the time. The book also helped to popularize coffee among the European elite.



First Coffeehouse in Germany 

The first coffeehouse in Germany was opened in Bremen in 1673 by a Dutch merchant



Women’s Petition Against Coffee


In 1674, a group of English women published a pamphlet entitled “The Women’s Petition Against Coffee.” The petition was a satirical protest against the growing popularity of coffeehouses and the amount of time that men were spending in them.

The petition begins by listing the many ways in which coffee is harmful to men. It claims that coffee makes men impotent, effeminate, and lazy. It also argues that coffeehouses are hotbeds of sedition and immorality.

The petition then goes on to describe the negative impact that coffee is having on women’s lives. It claims that coffee is making men neglect their families and spend their money on frivolous things. It also argues that coffee is making men less attractive to women.

The petition concludes by calling on the government to ban coffeehouses. It argues that coffee is a threat to the family, the economy, and the nation.



The First Coffeehouse in Philadelphia

The first coffeehouse in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was opened in 1674 by a man named Samuel Carpenter. It was called the Coffee House and was located on Front Street. The coffeehouse was a popular meeting place for members of the Philadelphia Merchants’ Exchange.

The Coffee House was a popular meeting place for the Sons of Liberty, a group of American patriots who were opposed to British rule.
The Coffee House was also the site of the first American stock exchange. The Coffee House was destroyed by fire in 1776, but it was rebuilt in 1796. The Coffee House is now a museum.



The First Coffeehouse Ban in England

In 1675, King Charles II of England issued a proclamation that closed all coffeehouses in London. The king claimed that coffeehouses were breeding grounds for sedition and rebellion.

The proclamation was met with widespread protest from coffeehouse owners and patrons. Coffeehouses were popular gathering places for people of all social classes, and they were seen as important centers of news and information.

The ban was short-lived. Within a few months, Charles II was forced to rescind the proclamation. The coffeehouse ban is a reminder of the importance of free speech and assembly in a democracy.



Licensing Requirement for Coffeehouses in England

In 1675, the English government introduced a licensing requirement for coffeehouses. The requirement was introduced in response to concerns that coffeehouses were being used as hotbeds of sedition and political dissent.

The licensing requirement stipulated that coffeehouses could only be operated by individuals who had been granted a license by the government. The government granted licenses to individuals who were considered to be loyal to the Crown and who were not considered to be a threat to public order.

The licensing requirement had a significant impact on the coffeehouse culture in England. It led to the closure of many coffeehouses and made it more difficult for new coffeehouses to open.



The First Coffeehouse in Boston

The first coffeehouse in Boston, Massachusetts was opened in 1676 by a man named Benjamin Harris. It was called the London Coffee House and was located on King Street. The coffeehouse was a popular meeting place for merchants, politicians, and other members of the community. It was also a place where people could come to read the news, discuss current events, and play games.

The London Coffee House was a success and soon other coffeehouses began to open in Boston. By the early 1700s, there were over a dozen coffeehouses in the city. Coffeehouses played an important role in the social and political life of Boston and helped to shape the city’s culture.

The London Coffee House was located on King Street, which is now known as State Street. The coffeehouse was a two-story building with a large fireplace on the first floor. The coffeehouse was open from 6am to 10pm and served coffee, tea, chocolate, and other beverages. Coffee cost about 6 pence per cup. The London Coffee House closed in 1776 due to the American Revolution, but it played an important role in the history of Boston.



Coffee ban in Germany

The coffee ban in Germany was enacted in 1677 by Frederick III, the Elector of Brandenburg. The ban was motivated by economic and political concerns. Frederick III was worried about the amount of money being spent on coffee, which he believed was a luxury item. He was also concerned about the popularity of coffeehouses, which he saw as potential hotbeds of political dissent.

The ban was not universally popular, and there were widespread protests against it. However, the ban remained in place for several years, until it was finally lifted in 1687.



Coffee in Vienna

The introduction of coffee to Vienna and the opening of the first coffeehouse there are intertwined events. In 1683, after the successful defense of Vienna against the Ottoman army, a Polish-Ukrainian soldier named Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki (Georg Franz Kolschitzky in German) opened the first coffeehouse in Vienna, which he named “Zur Blauen Flasche” (The Blue Bottle).



The First Book on Coffee Preparation

In 1685, French author Philippe Sylvestre Dufour published a book titled “The Manner of Making Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate” in Lyon, France. This book is considered the first book dedicated solely to the preparation of coffee.

Details about the book:

  • The book was published in French and was titled “Traité du Café, du Thé et du Chocolate.”
  • It contained detailed instructions on how to roast, grind, and brew coffee.
  • It also included recipes for various coffee drinks, including coffee with milk, sugar, and spices.



The First Coffeehouse in Paris

The first coffeehouse in Paris, France, was called “Cafe le Procope” and it opened in 1686. It was founded by a Sicilian named Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli, who later changed his name to François Procope. The coffeehouse was located on the rue des Fossés-Saint-Germain, near the Comédie-Française.

Cafe le Procope was originally called “Le Procope” but the name was changed to “Cafe le Procope” in the 19th century. Cafe le Procope was the site of the first public reading of Voltaire’s play “Candide.” The coffeehouse was closed during the French Revolution but reopened in 1799. Cafe le Procope was declared a historical monument in 1962.

Cafe le Procope was a popular meeting place for intellectuals and artists, including Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot. It was also a place where people could come to read the news, discuss current events, and play games.

Cafe le Procope is still in operation today and is considered to be one of the oldest continuously operating cafes in the world. It is a popular tourist destination and is known for its traditional French cuisine and its historic atmosphere.



The First  Coffee Plantation in Java

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was the first European company to trade coffee. The VOC established the first coffee plantation in Java. This plantation was a huge success, and it helped to make Java the world’s leading producer of coffee. Java coffee is known for its rich, full-bodied flavor and its smooth, chocolatey finish.



The First Newspaper Advertisement in America

The first coffee advertisement in America appeared in the New York Daily Advertiser on September 30, 1697. The ad was placed by a merchant named John Asgill and promoted the sale of coffee at his shop.



The First Coffee Tree Grown in France

In 1706, the first coffee tree was grown in France using a coffee bean obtained from the botanical garden in Holland. The coffee tree was cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes botanical garden in Paris and presented to King Louis XIV of France.

The coffee tree was grown in a greenhouse at the Jardin des Plantes. The coffee tree was a gift to King Louis XIV from the Dutch government.

The Jardin des Plantes is one of the oldest and largest botanical gardens in the world and is still in operation today.



Java Coffee First Sold in Holland

Java coffee, which would later become one of the most famous coffees in the world, was sold at auction in the Dutch city of Amsterdam. The coffee was grown in the Java region of Indonesia.

The first shipment of Java coffee arrived in Amsterdam in 1711. It was sold at auction for 23 and two-thirds stuivers (about forty-seven cents) per Amsterdam pound. The coffee was a success and quickly became popular in the Netherlands.

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was responsible for the cultivation and export of Java coffee. The VOC had a monopoly on the coffee trade in the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia). The company forced the Javanese people to grow coffee and sell it to the VOC at a low price.

The VOC made a large profit from the coffee trade. The company sold Java coffee to all parts of Europe and the Middle East. Java coffee became one of the most important export products of the VOC.

The VOC’s monopoly on the coffee trade ended in 1799. After that, the cultivation and export of Java coffee was open to private companies. Java coffee continued to be popular in the Netherlands and around the world.



Coffee Enters the German Encyclopedia

The famous German encyclopedia “Curieuses und reales Natur-Kunst-Berg-Gewerck-und Handlungs-Lexicon”, compiled by John Hubner, included the story of the discovery of coffee. It mentioned the story of Khaldi and his dancing goats.

It was one of the first encyclopedias to include information about coffee. The story of Khaldi and his dancing goats is a traditional Ethiopian story about the discovery of coffee. According to the story, Khaldi was a goat herder who noticed that his goats became more energetic after eating the berries of a certain tree. He tried the berries himself and found that they made him feel more alert and awake. He shared his discovery with others, and coffee soon became a popular beverage throughout the world.



Coffee Production Begins in Haiti

Coffee was first introduced to Haiti by the French. Haiti became the world’s leading coffee producer in the 1800s. Haitian coffee is known for its rich, full-bodied flavor and its distinctive aroma. The majority of coffee production in Haiti takes place in the country’s mountainous interior. Coffee is grown by smallholder farmers, who typically cultivate small plots of land.

Coffee production in Haiti declined in the 20th century due to political instability and natural disasters.

The country has the right climate and soil for coffee production, and there is a large pool of potential labor. The Haitian government is now working to revive the coffee industry, and there are signs that production is on the rise. In 2023, Haiti exported 40,000 bags of coffee, up from 20,000 bags in 2022.



New Coffee Shop “Caffe Florian” Opens in Vienna

Florina Domingo has opened a new coffee shop in Vienna called “Caffe Florian“. Caffe Florian has been serving coffee lovers since then.

Caffe Florian is located in the heart of Vienna, on a charming cobblestone street. The coffee shop is decorated in a traditional Viennese style, with dark wood furniture and plush red velvet curtains.



Coffee Cultivation Begins in Jamaica

The English began cultivating coffee in Jamaica in the late 17th century. The first coffee plants were brought to the island from Martinique in 1728 by Sir Nicholas Lawes, the then-governor of Jamaica. The plants thrived in the island’s climate and soil, and coffee production quickly became a major part of the Jamaican economy.

By the early 18th century, Jamaica was one of the world’s leading coffee producers. The island’s coffee was known for its high quality and was exported to markets all over the world. Coffee production in Jamaica reached its peak in the mid-19th century, when the island exported over 100,000 tons of coffee per year.

However, coffee production in Jamaica declined in the late 19th and early 20th centuries due to a number of factors, including a series of hurricanes, the abolition of slavery, and the rise of coffee production in other countries. Today, Jamaica is a relatively small producer of coffee, but the island’s coffee remains highly sought-after by coffee lovers around the world.

The Blue Mountains of Jamaica are home to some of the world’s most famous coffee. Jamaican coffee is known for its smooth, full-bodied flavor and its lack of bitterness.



Coffee Cultivation Begins in Brazil

In the early 18th century, coffee cultivation began in earnest in Brazil, which was then a colony of Portugal. The Portuguese had brought coffee plants to Brazil from their colonies in French Guiana, and the plants quickly thrived in the Brazilian climate.

Lieutenant Colonel Francisco de Melo Palheta, on a diplomatic mission to French Guiana, managed to acquire coffee seeds and planted them in Brazil. This initial step marked the beginning of a journey that would transform Brazil into the world’s leading coffee producer.

The Portuguese government encouraged coffee cultivation in Brazil by offering tax breaks and other incentives to coffee growers. As a result, coffee production in Brazil grew rapidly. By the mid-19th century, Brazil had become the world’s leading producer of coffee.

Brazil’s coffee industry has continued to grow in the 21st century. Today, Brazil produces about a third of the world’s coffee. The country’s coffee industry is a major source of income for Brazilian farmers and workers.



Coffee’s Scientific Classification

Swedish scientist and researcher Carl Linnaeus published the scientific classification of coffee species. The “Rubiaceae family” to which coffee belongs was classified under the heading “Species Plantarum”, which is still used today. The botanical and medicinal properties of the coffee tree and its fruits were published scientifically for the first time. This work is still used by botanists today.

Carl Linnaeus’s work on the scientific classification of coffee was a major breakthrough in the field of botany. It allowed scientists to more easily identify and understand the different species of coffee plants. The Rubiaceae family is a large and diverse family of plants that includes over 13,000 species. Coffee is just one of many genera in this family.



New Coffee Brewing Method

In the French city of St. Benoit, a French tinsmith and copper worker developed a new tool for brewing coffee. It allowed the coffee to be filtered and brewed using a cloth bag placed inside the cezve (Turkish coffee pot).

The new coffee brewing method was a significant improvement over previous methods because it produced a cleaner, more flavorful cup of coffee. The cloth bag helped to remove the coffee grounds from the water, which resulted in a less bitter and gritty cup of coffee. The copper coffee pot also helped to keep the coffee hot for longer.

The new coffee brewing method was quickly adopted by coffee lovers around the world and is still used today. It is a simple and effective way to brew a delicious cup of coffee.



Brazil started coffee exports

Coffee exports have been started from Brazil began in 1772. A shipment of 1.5 tons of coffee beans was exported from Pará, Brazil, to North America in 1772, marking the official start of the export industry. Following the initial shipment, coffee exports from Brazil grew rapidly.



Coffee was first sold packaged in New York.

Coffee was first sold packaged in New York in 1775 by a merchant named John Hannon. Hannon sold coffee in small, sealed packages that were convenient for customers to take home.



Coffee vs. Beer

The Prussian King Frederick the Great issued a manifesto on coffee and beer. He encouraged the consumption of more beer instead of coffee.

Frederick the Great was a strong advocate for the consumption of beer. He believed that it was a healthier and more nutritious drink than coffee. The manifesto was part of a larger campaign by Frederick the Great to promote Prussian industry and agriculture. He believed that beer was a product that could be produced domestically, and that it would help to boost the Prussian economy. The manifesto was not without its critics. Some people argued that it was an attempt to control people’s drinking habits. Others argued that it was simply a way for Frederick the Great to raise taxes on beer.

The manifesto had a significant impact on the consumption of coffee and beer in Prussia. In the years following its publication, the consumption of beer increased significantly, while the consumption of coffee decreased.

The manifesto is still relevant today. It is a reminder of the importance of government policy in shaping people’s food and drink choices. It also highlights the potential for government policy to be used to promote domestic industries and agriculture.

The Manifesto of Frederick the Great on Coffee and Beer:



The Prussian King Takes Control of Coffee in Germany

King Frederick the Great of Prussia established a state monopoly on the roasting of coffee in Germany. This meant that citizens were prohibited from roasting their own coffee, and only the state could do so. This was done in order to generate revenue for the government and to control the quality of coffee.

To enforce this monopoly, Frederick appointed inspectors who would sniff out and confiscate any coffee that was being roasted illegally. These inspectors were known as “coffee sniffers” and they had the power to enter homes and businesses without a warrant.

The state monopoly on coffee roasting had a number of consequences. It led to an increase in the price of coffee, as the state was able to charge higher prices. It also led to a decrease in the quality of coffee, as the state was not as concerned with quality as it was with revenue.

The state monopoly on coffee roasting was finally abolished in 1810. However, the legacy of the monopoly can still be seen today in the high price of coffee in Germany.



Criticism of the state was banned in coffeehouses

Sultan III.Selim in Ottoman Empire issued a decree banning criticism of the state in coffeehouses. The decree stated that those who disobeyed the ban would be arrested and punished.

The decree was issued in response to the growing popularity of coffeehouses as a place for political discussion. The decree was met with widespread criticism. The decree was eventually repealed in 1807.



The Arrival of Coffee in Mexico

Coffee was first brought to Mexico by a Spanish military and politician named Martin de Mayorga y Lombera. It was initially cultivated in the city of Veracruz. In the 18th century, coffee cultivation spread to other parts of Mexico, such as Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Veracruz.

Today, Mexico is one of the largest coffee producers in the world. The country produces about 2.5 million tons of coffee per year. The most important coffee producing regions in Mexico are:

  • Chiapas: This is the region that produces the most coffee in Mexico. Chiapas coffee is known for its high acidity and complex aroma.
  • Veracruz: This is the oldest coffee producing region in Mexico. Veracruz coffee is known for its soft body and sweet aroma.
  • Oaxaca: Oaxaca coffee is known for its smoky aroma and spicy notes.

The vast majority of coffee beans grown in Mexico are of the Arabica type. Robusta coffee is also grown in Mexico, but it is less common.



Tontine Coffee House Opens in Manhattan

The Tontine Coffee House opened in Manhattan, New York City. At that time, the Tontine Coffee House served as an investment and business center. Auctions and stock sales were held there. For this reason, the Tontine Coffee House inspired what would later become the New York Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange in the world.

The Tontine Coffee House was used as a business and financial center until 1817. When the New York Stock Exchange opened, the Tontine’s popularity declined. It was first converted into a tavern and then into a hotel. It was demolished in 1855 and rebuilt. The new building was also demolished in 1904.

The Tontine Coffee House was located at 82 Wall Street, on the corner of Water Street. It was built in 1792 by a group of investors who organized themselves as a tontine, a type of investment pool. The coffee house was a popular meeting place for merchants, brokers, and other businessmen. It was also the site of many important events in American history, including the signing of the Buttonwood Agreement, which established the New York Stock Exchange. The Tontine Coffee House was demolished in 1904 to make way for a new office building.



First coffee ship from Yemen arrives in America

The first ship loaded with coffee from Yemen arrived at the port of Salem in the state of Massachusetts, United States.

The ship, named the “Abigail”, left the port of Mocha in Yemen on December 24, 1802. It arrived in Salem on March 2, 1803, after a voyage of 79 days. The ship was carrying 130 bales of coffee, which were worth about $20,000 at the time. The arrival of the “Abigail” marked the beginning of the coffee trade between Yemen and the United States.



Coffee cultivation has started in the Hawaiian Islands

Coffee was first introduced to Hawaii in 1817 by Don Francisco de Paula Marin, a Spanish horticulturist.

The first coffee plants were grown in the Kona district of the Big Island. Coffee cultivation quickly spread to other islands in the archipelago, including Maui, Kauai, and Oahu. Today, Hawaii is the only state in the United States that produces coffee commercially. Hawaiian coffee is known for its unique flavor profile, which is often described as being smooth, mellow, and slightly acidic.

By the 1850s, Hawaii was the leading producer of coffee in the United States. Coffee production in Hawaii declined in the late 19th century due to a number of factors, including the rise of coffee production in other countries, the loss of labor due to the Hawaiian Revolution, and the annexation of Hawaii by the United States.



First Patent for a Coffee Machine 

Lewis Martelley was a New York inventor who received the first US patent for a coffee machine on December 28, 1818. His patent was for a “new and improved method of making coffee.” Martelley’s machine was a significant improvement over previous coffee makers because it allowed for the brewing of coffee without the need for a separate boiler. This made it possible to brew coffee more quickly and easily, and it helped to popularize the drink in the United States.



The filtered coffee maker was invented.

The first filtered coffee maker was invented in 1819 by the French tinsmith Joseph-Henry-Marie Laurens. Laurens’s coffee maker used a perforated metal basket to hold the coffee grounds, and a tube to carry the hot water up through the grounds and into the brewed coffee. Laurens’s coffee maker was not very popular, and it was not until the late 19th century that filtered coffee makers became widely used.

The invention of the filtered coffee maker was a major breakthrough in the history of coffee brewing. Before the invention of the filtered coffee maker, coffee was typically brewed by boiling ground coffee in water. This method of brewing coffee often resulted in a bitter and gritty cup of coffee.

The filtered coffee maker made it possible to brew a cup of coffee that was clear and free of coffee grounds. This made coffee more palatable to a wider range of people, and helped to make coffee one of the most popular beverages in the world.



The first prototype of the espresso machine was made.

A French inventor named Joseph-Marie Jacquin created a machine that used steam pressure to make coffee. It was a steam-powered machine that forced hot water through finely-ground coffee beans.
It was announced to the public at the Universal Exposition, a business fair held in Paris in 1855. The first espresso machine was not a commercial success, but it paved the way for the development of future espresso machines. The first commercially successful espresso machine was invented in 1901 by Luigi Bezzera.



The first vacuum coffee maker

The first vacuum coffee maker was invented in 1830 by a French chemist named Loir.
Vacuum coffee makers work by using a vacuum to create a low-pressure environment, which lowers the boiling point of water. This allows the coffee to be brewed at a lower temperature, which results in a more flavorful cup of coffee.
Vacuum coffee makers were popular by the early 20th century, but they fell out of favor in the mid-20th century as drip coffee makers became more popular.



Forced Coffee Cultivation Started in Java

In 1830, the Dutch government introduced the Cultuurstelsel (Cultivation System), also known as the Forced Cultivation System. Under this system, all Javanese farmers were required to grow a certain amount of coffee on their land. The government would then buy the coffee at a fixed price, which was often below the market price.

The Forced Cultivation System had a number of negative impacts on Java. It led to:

  • Landlessness: Many farmers lost their land because they were unable to meet the government’s quotas.
  • Poverty: The low prices paid by the government for coffee meant that farmers were often unable to make a living.
  • Famine: The focus on coffee production led to a decline in the production of food crops, which resulted in famines.

The Forced Cultivation System was finally abolished in 1870. However, the damage had already been done. The system had impoverished the Javanese peasantry and had led to the widespread loss of land.



Vacuum Coffee Makers

The Napierian vacuum coffee maker was invented by James Napier in 1840. The coffee maker was made of glass and metal and used a vacuum to brew coffee. The Napierian vacuum coffee maker was popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Vacuum coffee makers are still used today, but they are not as popular as they once were.

They work by using a vacuum to draw hot water up through a chamber containing coffee grounds. The coffee is then brewed in the upper chamber and drips back down into the lower chamber. Vacuum coffee makers are known for producing a clean, flavorful cup of coffee.



Coffee cultivation has begun in Guatemala.

Natural indigo blue and red cochineal were Guatemala’s main sources of income. With the discovery of synthetic dyes, Guatemala, which lost its source of income, turned to coffee.The first coffee plants were brought to Guatemala by German missionaries. The country’s climate and soil proved ideal for coffee production. By 1859, over half a million coffee trees had been planted in Guatemala.



Ground Coffee Was Packaged

Ground coffee was packaged and offered for sale in New York. In America, an entrepreneur named Lewis A. Osborn packaged and sold ground coffee. The packaged coffee, marketed under the brand name Osborn’s Celebrated Prepared Java Coffee, was very popular.

Osborn’s Celebrated Prepared Java Coffee, was one of the first commercially successful packaged coffees in the United States. Osborn’s coffee was roasted and ground in New York City and then shipped to grocery stores and other retailers throughout the country. The coffee was sold in a variety of sizes and flavors, including Java, Mocha, and Rio. Osborn’s coffee was popular with consumers because it was convenient and of high quality. The company’s success helped to popularize the consumption of packaged coffee in the United States.

Coffee was typically sold in bulk and had to be ground by the consumer before brewing. The introduction of packaged coffee made it possible for consumers to purchase coffee that was already ground and ready to brew, which made it more convenient and accessible to a wider range of people.



A Turning Point in Coffee Roasting Machines

American Jabez Burns patented a new type of coffee roasting machine that he named after himself. These new Burns coffee roasting machines featured a simple mechanism that allowed the roasted coffee beans to be emptied while the machine was still over the fire. This feature prevented the beans from burning and allowed for more consistent roasting.

The Burns coffee roasting machine was a major breakthrough in coffee roasting technology and is still used today.

Burns was a self-taught inventor who worked as a machinist in New York City. He was inspired to invent a better coffee roasting machine after seeing how inefficient and time-consuming the traditional methods were.

Burns’s coffee roasting machine was an immediate success and quickly became the standard for coffee roasting machines in the United States. The vast majority of coffee roasting machines in use today are based on the same principles that Burns first developed in the 1860s.The Burns company is still in business today and continues to manufacture coffee roasting machines.



The First Drip Coffee Maker: Coffee Percolator

James Mason, a British soldier and scientist, invented the coffee percolator, a machine that makes coffee using the drip method. The machine, known as the “coffee percolator,” worked by using a normal fire.

In the 1920s, the General Electric company released electric versions of the same device. Today, electric versions of this device are still in use.



Coffee Coating

John Arbuckle patented a roasted coffee coating made of Irish moss, gelatin, sugar, and egg. This coating allowed roasted coffee to have a longer shelf life.

John Arbuckle was an Irish-American businessman who founded the Arbuckle Brothers coffee company in 1864. Arbuckle’s coffee coating was the first of its kind and was a major innovation in the coffee industry. The coating helped to keep roasted coffee fresh for longer periods of time, which made it possible to ship coffee over long distances.

Arbuckle’s coffee coating was a commercial success and helped to make the Arbuckle Brothers coffee company one of the largest coffee companies in the world. The coating is still used today by some coffee companies.



Semi-automatic coffee weighing and packaging machine

Henry E. Smyser of Philadelphia received a patent for a semi-automatic coffee weighing and packaging machine. This machine is considered a pioneer in the development of automatic weighing and packaging machines.

This machine is one of the earliest examples of automatic weighing and packaging machines. It enabled products in the coffee industry and other fields to be weighed and packaged in pre-determined quantities.

Smyser’s machine worked by pouring coffee from a hopper into a coffee receptacle. The coffee receptacle was placed on a scale that held the desired amount of coffee. When the receptacle was full, the coffee was discharged into a bag or container. Once the bag or container was full, the operator would manually close it.

Smyser’s machine revolutionized the coffee industry. Previously, coffee was weighed and packaged manually, which was time-consuming and laborious. Smyser’s machine automated the coffee packaging process, making it faster and more efficient. This contributed to lower coffee prices and increased coffee consumption.

Smyser’s machine laid the foundation for modern automatic weighing and packaging machines. Today, there are sophisticated automatic weighing and packaging systems used in various industries, including food, pharmaceuticals, and many others.




The First Coffee Brand: Ariosa

The first coffee brand was created under the name “Ariosa”. In Pittsburgh, America, John Arbuckle launched roasted coffee beans in metal cans under the “Ariosa” brand. John Arbuckle pioneered the branding of coffee with his brother, in a company called “Arbuckle Brothers Company”. The company still sells coffee under the “Arbuckle Coffee” brand.

The name “Ariosa” was chosen because it means “airy” or “light” in Italian. The original Ariosa coffee blend was made from a mixture of Arabica and Robusta beans. Arbuckle Coffee was a favorite of President Theodore Roosevelt. The company’s slogan is “The Coffee That Won the West.”



Kurukahveci Mehmet Efendi Opens: A Historical Landmark in Turkish Coffee Culture

Kuru kahveci Mehmet efendi

Mehmet Efendi, a visionary entrepreneur, opened his humble coffee shop in Tahmis Street, Istanbul, marking a pivotal moment in the history of Turkish coffee. At a time when coffee beans were typically sold raw and ground at home, Mehmet Efendi introduced a revolutionary concept: freshly roasted and ground coffee, ready for immediate brewing.

This innovative approach, coupled with the enticing aroma of freshly roasted coffee wafting through the streets, quickly earned Mehmet Efendi a reputation as the go-to destination for coffee enthusiasts. His shop, aptly named “Kurukahveci Mehmet Efendi” (Mehmet Efendi’s Coffee Roaster), became a beloved neighborhood fixture, attracting coffee lovers from all corners of Istanbul.

Mehmet Efendi’s pioneering spirit extended beyond his preparation methods. He meticulously selected premium coffee beans, ensuring a consistently rich and flavorful brew. His dedication to quality and customer satisfaction laid the foundation for Kurukahveci Mehmet Efendi’s enduring legacy.

Today, Kurukahveci Mehmet Efendi stands as a symbol of Turkish coffee heritage, its name synonymous with exceptional quality and authentic taste. The company has expanded its reach far beyond Istanbul, becoming a household name in Turkey and a respected brand worldwide.



The first written work about coffee in America

The first written work about coffee in America was “Coffee: Its History, Cultivation, and Uses”, published by New Yorker Robert Hewitt Jr. The book is still in print today and is published and sold by various publishers. An online version of the book is also available for free.

The book provides a comprehensive history of coffee, from the origins of the coffee plant to its cultivation, processing, and use in different countries.

Hewitt’s work was considered a timely and significant contribution as interest in coffee grew in America during that era. The book provided accurate and up-to-date information about coffee and discussed various opinions on the subject, including the benefits and drawbacks of coffee consumption.



New patent from Burns: Improved coffee grinder

Jabez Burns received a patent in 1876 for an improved coffee grinder. The patent describes a machine that was designed to grind coffee beans more evenly and efficiently than previous models. The machine featured a number of innovative design elements, including a conical grinding chamber and a rotating burr grinder. These features helped to produce a more consistent grind, which in turn resulted in a more flavorful cup of coffee.

The Burns coffee grinder was one of the first to use a conical grinding chamber. This design helped to prevent the beans from clumping together, which could lead to uneven grinding.

The machine also featured a rotating burr grinder. This type of grinder is still used in many coffee grinders today. It consists of two metal plates with sharp ridges that grind the beans as they pass between them.

The Burns coffee grinder was a major breakthrough in coffee grinding technology. It helped to improve the quality of coffee and made it easier to prepare a delicious cup at home.



For the first time, roasted coffee was packaged in metal cans

coffee in metal cans

coffee in metal cans

In Boston, the Chase and Sanborn company was the first to package and sell roasted coffee in metal cans. This was a major innovation in the coffee industry, as it allowed consumers to purchase fresh, roasted coffee that was ready to brew. Prior to this, coffee was typically roasted and ground at home.

The Chase and Sanborn company was founded in 1875 by Donald Chase and James Sanborn. The company’s first product was a blend of coffee called “Chase and Sanborn’s Seal of Approval.”
The company’s packaging was innovative for its time, and it helped to popularize the consumption of roasted coffee in the United States.
Chase and Sanborn became one of the most popular coffee brands in the United States, and it remained a major player in the coffee industry for many years.



Vacuum-sealed coffee can

John Arbuckle invented the vacuum-sealed coffee can. This innovation helped to preserve the freshness of coffee and made it possible to ship coffee over long distances.



The First Espresso Machine

Angelo Moriondo, from Turin, Italy, patented the first espresso machine. This early machine used steam pressure to force hot water through finely-ground coffee beans. Moriondo’s invention was designed for commercial use, aiming to create a method for quickly brewing large quantities of coffee compared to traditional methods.
This first espresso machine wasn’t the same as modern espresso machines. It produced a coffee beverage closer to strong, brewed coffee with a bit of crema (the foamy layer on top) rather than the concentrated espresso we know today.

Moriondo’s work inspired further development of espresso machines, paving the way for machines with features like pressure gauges, group heads for single servings, and improved temperature control.The efficiency of Moriondo’s machine contributed to the rise of espresso cafes in Italy and beyond.



Vacuum-Packed Coffee: The Key to Freshness

Edward Norton, a resident of New York City, noticed that food items remained fresher for longer when vacuum-packed. Following this significant discovery, Norton patented the vacuuming method. This patent would revolutionize the food industry and ensure that many foods could be preserved for longer periods.

Norton’s discovery was soon applied to coffee as well. Coffee beans were vacuum-packed for the first time. This innovative method played a significant role in preserving the freshness and aroma of coffee. The vacuuming process prevented coffee from being exposed to oxygen, thereby preventing spoilage and aroma loss due to oxidation.



Vacuum-sealed Coffee Packages

Hills Brothers ads

Hills Brothers, a San Francisco-based coffee company, began using Edward Norton’s vacuum sealing patent to package their coffee.

This was a major innovation in the coffee industry. Previously, coffee beans were exposed to air, leading to faster oxidation and loss of freshness. Vacuum sealing significantly extended the shelf life of coffee, preserving its aroma and flavor for a longer period.

Hills Brothers continues to be a major player in the coffee industry, still selling packaged coffee and various coffee products today.



Invention of instant coffee

Dr. Satori Kato, a Japanese scientist residing in Chicago, patented a method for producing soluble coffee powder, which laid the foundation for modern instant coffee. His method involved spraying coffee extract in heated, pressurized chambers to create a dried, soluble form of coffee. This innovation revolutionized the coffee industry, making coffee preparation quicker and more convenient. He showcased his invention at the Pan-American Exposition in 1901.

While Kato’s instant coffee gained some popularity, particularly during World War I when soldiers carried it for easy access to a cup of joe, it wasn’t as commercially successful as later instant coffee products. His work laid the foundation for the development of a stable, powdered coffee concentrate, paving the way for the instant coffee revolution that Nescafe would later capitalize on.



Robusta coffee production in Java

A devastating disease called Coffee Leaf Rust struck Arabica plantations worldwide in the late 19th century. This disease severely impacted Arabica crops in Java.

The Dutch turned to Robusta coffee, a hardier and disease-resistant variety native to Central Africa. Robusta proved to be a good fit for Java’s climate and soil conditions. It thrived where Arabica had struggled, and Robusta production in Java flourished.

Today, Indonesia is one of the world’s leading producers of Robusta coffee, and Java remains a key contributor within Indonesia. Java Robusta is known for its bold flavor, higher caffeine content compared to Arabica, and a slightly earthy aroma.



Kato Coffee introduced instant coffee commercially

After securing a patent for his soluble coffee process, Dr. Satori Kato, Japanese chemist, established Kato Coffee, in New York, around 1910. Kato introduced his early version of instant coffee at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York sometime between 1901 and 1910.

However, there’s no record of widespread national distribution. It’s possible Kato Coffee’s sales were limited to a regional area or specialty stores.

His invention of a stable, soluble coffee powder was a significant leap forward in instant coffee technology. His work inspired and influenced later companies like Nestle, who perfected the instant coffee experience with their Nescafe brand in 1938.



First mass-produced instant coffee

George Constant Washington was an American inventor living in Guatemala at the time. He was inspired to create instant coffee after noticing dried coffee residue on his coffee pot.

Following his patent in 1906, Washington developed a brand of instant coffee called “Red E” Coffee. He later renamed it G. Washington’s Prepared Coffee in 1910 and founded the G. Washington Coffee Company in New York to manufacture and sell it.

Washington’s instant coffee achieved some popularity, particularly as a novelty. It was also used by the military during World War I. However, it lacked the taste and quality of freshly brewed coffee.

Despite the taste concerns, Washington’s instant coffee was a major breakthrough because it was the first mass-produced instant coffee in the United States. This opened doors for wider availability and consumption of instant coffee.



Birth of the Paper Coffee Filter


Melitta Bentz, a German housewife, invented the first commercially successful paper coffee filter. She was frustrated by the gritty residue left behind by traditional metal filters,  and looked for a solution.

One day, inspired by her eldest son’s blotting paper, Bentz experimented by punching holes in a piece of it and placing it over a coffee pot. The result was a clean cup of coffee without the grounds! Not satisfied with a makeshift solution, Bentz refined her idea. She used round filter paper and a perforated brass pot insert to ensure proper water flow. In 1908, she took a bold step by filing for a patent for her invention, becoming one of the first women in Germany to do so.

With the patent secured, Bentz started a company named after herself – Melitta. She began selling her coffee filters and special coffee pots designed for them. The product gained popularity due to its effectiveness and convenience.

The Melitta company continues to be a major player in the coffee industry, offering a wide range of coffee filters and other coffee-related products. Melitta Bentz’s invention remains a staple in households worldwide, a testament to her ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit.



The Birth of Electric Coffee Grinders

Hobart Manufacturing Co., based in Troy, Ohio, introduced the first commercially successful electric coffee grinder. This groundbreaking appliance, named as model H, powered by an electric motor, marked a significant advancement from the manual grinders that were prevalent at the time.

Prior to this invention, grinding coffee beans was a laborious task, often done by hand using mortar and pestle or a hand-crank grinder. Electric coffee grinders made the process significantly faster and more convenient.

Hobart Manufacturing Co.’s expertise in electric appliances extended beyond coffee grinders. In 1919, the company introduced the KitchenAid stand mixer, which became an instant success among home cooks. The KitchenAid brand, now owned by Whirlpool Corporation, continues to produce high-quality kitchen appliances, including coffee grinders.

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